From Teutonia to Mountain

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I’ve wanted to post this online for a while now. In September, I designed a small family of display typefaces for MAGMA Brand Design GmbH & Co. KG to use in Bastard: Choose My Identity. I post irregularly on their typography blog, Slanted, and somehow I became invited to include a typeface in the Bastard project. That was flattering to say the least; I’ve been working in typography for a few years now, but hadn’t released any fonts (commercially or for free). When I agreed to submit, I had no idea what I would end up sending them.

Schriften Atlas, by Hofrat Ludwig Petzendorfer. Published 2004 by Matrix Verlag GmbH, Wiesbaden. This catalog is a reproduction of the Julius Hoffmann Verlag’s specimen book from 1903–1905 (Stuttgart).

TypeOff. was conceived as a “proselytizing” platform, so to speak. The small group of type-minded designers who founded it had always been impressed by Offenbach’s typographic tradition, but we hadn’t actually done much research into the typefaces produced historically in the city for the first year or so of our activities together. Almost concurrently, Peter Reichard from TYPOSITION. and I separately came across a geometric art nouveau typeface named Teutonia in the same specimen book (pictured above). We each began to draw our own digital versions.

Teutonia was released by the Roos & Junge typefoundry in 1902. Roos & Junge, which closed during the early 20th century, was one of several typefoundries that operated in Offenbach during its industrial era. It is much less well-know today than the Klingspor foundry, for instance.

For a typeface, Teutonia apparently lived a brief and unremarkable life, despite its being copied and distributed in Italy under the name Archimede. Similar letterforms would appear in Russian revolutionary and constructivist graphics during the 1920s. These letterforms changed over time, becoming more rational, and less eccentric. During the 1990s, Tagir Safeyev’s ITC Stenberg revived these changed, rather Russian-looking forms. A beautiful design, ITC Stenberg appears too “clean” when compared with Teutonia. The charm brought about by many of the unexpected diagonal elements did not seem to survive the decades-long transition. And Teutonia was originally equipped with its own lowercase.

Characters from the first digital sketches I made for Mountain.

After showing my first digital drawings to Peter, I decided to keep working on the project, and it ended up being my contribution to the Bastard project. I gave Teutonia italics (obliques, actually), a feature it has never seemed to have. Both the upright and italic fonts include small caps (see samples below).

Before shipping the typeface off, I had to give it a new name. Teutonia is too inappropriate for a commercial font name today, I think, as it has seemingly nationalistic connotations. Also, many turn of the century German typefoundries had various designs that they named “Teutonia,” and these all looked different. How could I lay sole claim to the Teutonia name when it was just one of many typefaces to bear that name? Instead, I named the redesign Mountain. There isn’t much of a clever explanation behind “Mountain;” I happen like mountains, and it is sort of a play on “Volcano,” which is the name of the font foundry distributing Mountain online.

Dan channels the ghost in the machine to assist him with the spacing of font.

Mountain isn’t an “original” typeface design in the way that many fonts certainly are. Rather, I see it as way to bring a historical typeface back into contemporary use. All typeface revivals require a certain level of problem solving; today, we use a range of characters that were not common in text set around 1900. And we use type quite differently today, now that fonts have become ephemeral rather than physical. Hopefully, Mountain will find more use in print than Teutonia did 100 years ago!

Above is a close-up of a scan from one of Roos & Junge’s specimen books showing Teutonia.

Comparison of Teutonia with Mountain, 1
This comparison shows Teutonia (above) and Mountain’s regular weight (below).

Comparison of Teutonia with Mountain, 2
This comparison shows Teutonia (above) and Mountain’s uppercase and small caps (below).

Comparison of Teutonia with Mountain, 3
This comparison shows Teutonia (above) and Mountain’s regular, regular small caps, italic, and italic small caps (below).

Mountain can be seen further at VolcanoType and

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  1. Love it, Dan. Credit card is in hand, brothah…

  2. Dan Reynolds 17 April 2006 at 16:31

    Thanks! I wish I could sell it you right now 😉

    It should come up on and soon. That isn’t in my hands :(

    If you buy their Bastard book, a trial version of the fonts for use in layouts but not printing comes on the CD in the back.

  3. Dan Reynolds 12 May 2006 at 10:10

    Hurray! Mountain went online today at! The fonts can be purchased directly at Here is a direct link:

  4. this is awesome.
    i like the and italic small caps and and regular small caps. i can see the italic really fitting into a climbing and extreme sports supply company.
    the one thing i have to point out is that the “d” letter is quite different fromt he font’s graphic language. it seems different.
    i was thinking about something like this:

    (sorry if im rude or anything like that).

  5. Dan Reynolds 13 May 2006 at 10:19

    Hey Yaron,

    No, that is totally not rude at all! I know exactly what you mean. That capital D is odd. But, since Mountain is a rather tight digitization of Teutonia, I left that quirk in, because it was in the old source material.

    I’m planning to release another design in a few months, which I will probably call Mountain Serif. It takes all of these shapes one step further, and in my opinion, will “correct” a lot of the oddities in Teutonia/Mountain while still feeling interesting. I have some old sketches for Mountain Sans on Typophile. The design has changed a bit since the last posts there, but if you are interested, here is a link: (the first couple of images still have that wacky D, but don’t worry, I did listen to reason, and got rid of it 😉 ).

    Also, this “genre” of digital fonts is already rather well filled out already. I had to bring in something new to this sort of font to differentiate it from a lot of the typical “Russian constructivist” sort of things. Those diagonals serve as my thing here, I guess.

  6. looks great, and those diagonals are good.
    there are some problems here and there, but it’s an interesting one. i can see your view on the digitital fonts and i agree, it’s definetly a thing to be cautious of.

    i think that the small caps “a” has some problems. it seems that there is no wheight exuality between the hole of the lower part and the upper part (the holes are the letters inner space). the upper part seems to me a little bigger.
    you could adjust a little knub under the letter.

    keep it up man!

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